Sarguja District History CG 15 Chhattisgarh
Surguja district is located in the northern part of Chhattisgarh State of India. Borders of Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh States are adjoining to the district. This district has overextension between a south-eastern part of Vindhyachal-Baghelkhand region of peninsular India. It lies between 23o 37’ 25’’ To 24o 6’ 17’’ north latitude and 81o 34’40’’ To 84o 4’40’’ east longitude. 244.62 km long east to west and 167.37 broad north to south, this land has as area of about 16359 Sq Km.
The presence of various temples stone carvings and archaic remains show the evidence of existence of this region before Christ(B.C.).
In 4Th B.C. Before the arrival of maurya dynasty,this region was in the Lord of Nanda clan. Before 3 B.C. this region was divided into tiny parts and their headman after quarrel among themselves. Then a Rajputa kings belongs to Rakshal clan in palamu district (Bihar) attacked and taken in his control. In 1820 Amar singh was the Kings of Surguja state who had been crowned as “Maharaja” in 1826. In 1882 Raghunath Sharan Singh Deo had taken his control over Surguja state who has been conferred as “Maharaja” by Lord Daffariu. After the contemporary victory of India he established Edward Middle School, Post Office ,Telegraph Office ,Medical stores ,jail and courts in Ambikapur capital of Surguja.
According to holy books Lord Rama had visited Surguja during his fourteen years of “Vanwas” period. There are many places in connection to epic of Ramayana. Many places are named after Lord Rama, Laxmana and Goddess Sita, they are Ramgarh, Sita-Bhengra and Laxmangarh. Verses of Poet Kalidas who wrote “Ramayan” are found at the Sita-Bhengra cave Major population comprises tribal population. Among these primitive tribes are Pando and Korwa , who are still living in forest, the Pando tribes believes themselves as the member of “Pandav” clan of epic Mahabharat. Korwa tribes believes to be member of “Kauravs” of Mahabharata.
Historical Background : Rivers
Main rivers of the district are Kanhar, Moran, Rihand and Mahan.
The Mahanadi Basin :
This drainage system is called as southward river system . The general slope of west Surguja is towards south and about 25% drainage comes in this system. Southerly rivers of district are the Hasdo and Gej, which forms the part of the Mahanandi Drainage System.
This river rises from Gidha-Dhodha on the Khudia plateau in jashpur district and flowing northward ,forms the eastern boundary of district with palamau district of bihar state.
This river flows for 100 Kms in district. It is fed by small tributaries – Suria,Chana,Sendur and Kursa on it’s left bank and Galphulla, Semarkhar, Riger and the Cherna nallah on it’s right bank.
A number of waterfalls are located along the track of the river. Pavai fall near Kothali village (Balrampur) is of about 61 meters. Hydro-electricity is proposed here since last two decades.
The Rihand :
This river also referred as Rend or Rehar , rises in the region south west of the Mainpat plateau, which is about 1,100 meters above mean sea level, from Matiranga hills. The river flows north roughly through the central part of the district for 160 Kms. The Rihand and it’s tributaries form a fertile plain in the central district stretching around Ambikapur to Lakhanpur and Pratappur. It’s principal tributaries are the Mahan ,the Morana(Morni) ,the Geur ,the Gagar ,the Gobri ,the Piparkachar , the Ramdia and Galphulla .
A medium irrigation project is working on Ghungutta river, since 1981, near Darima Air Strip under taken by World Bank ,Which is about 15 kms from Ambikapur . The Mahan is a perennial river ,on which medium Multipurpose project is under consideration by Central water Comission.
Historical Background : Climate
The climate of district is characterized by a hot summer and well distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. With its general monsoonal character, the region according to thornthwait’s classification falls in the Tropical Thermal belt assigns it the grassland type character.
According to trewartha’s classification the Surguja falls in AW class which is based on temperature and vegetation. The symbol AW denotes Tropical Swanah region. The chief feature of this climate is long dry period average monthly temperature rising over 18 0C, through maximum summer temperature may even go up to 46 0C. In winter the temperature not go below 18 0C .The monsoon bring sufficient rains. The chief determinants of climate in the district are:
1. It’s shape ,Size and extent
2. Central system of high lands and uplands.
The location on tropic of cancer results tropical climate with high pressure belt throughout the year, but due to its height above MSL controls its high temperature. The district is about 700 km from ocean therefore oceanic effect still remains zero , Whereas it’s location southward of Himalaya about 500 km protects it against cold winds blowing from northern belt.
Historical Background : Physiography
Here the natural features directly help the division of area in physiographic divisions:
The Mountains (high lands)
The Plateaus and Hills (uplands)
The Central plain
1. The High Lands:
Physiographically , they are remarkable land-forms and difficult to find a large area of one character expects it’s attitude . Average height of area varies from 600 meter and more. The high-land of Surguja district is peculiar ‘pat formations’. The major peaks of the district are as under:
The Mainpat , the jarang pat, the jonka pat, the jamira pat, and the Lahsunpat are the major pats of the district.
2. The Uplands (Plateaus and hills):
The terrain of north–west Surguja is hilly in nature , and here are one goes westwards , three distinct steps may be marked out : the first from Shrinagar on the east to the low-lands ofpatna and Khargawan , the second from thence to the uplands around Sonhat and the third beyond Sonhat to above the height of 1,033 meters.
3. The Central plain and low–lands:
The topography central Surguja assume the form of low basin through, which the Rihand and it’s tributaries flow . This low-level basin is in the form of inverted triangle.